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Monthly Archives: October 2010

The pipeline from kindergarten to death row

I had the opportunity yesterday to go to a panel discussion that was held by several campus entities, including the Institute for African American Research, Carolina Women’s Center and the Afro-African American Studies Department. The panelists were the Mayor of Chapel Hill/a defense attorney ( male, white), one of our political science professors ( male, white) and the President of the Chapel HIll/Carrboro NAACP/Sociology professor ( female, black).

They were talking about the death penalty and how it is so unfairly given to black men and how inequitable the justice system is. The statistics they shared were truly horrific. The defense attorney cited potential death penalty cases where 100% of black jurors had been eliminated from the pool, despite having said they would uphold the death penalty if the defendant was judged to be guilty. In the same cases only 24% of white jurors were excused and not chosen to serve on the jury.

So the system is broken at the beginning of the process, jury selection. Or even earlier, before you ever get into a court room. The prevailing wisdom in the black community is that black people, especially black men, are guilty until proven innocent. Even when they are proven innocent, as was Ronald Cotton in the Summer Reading book at Carolina, ” Picking Cotton”, they still have a hard row to hoe, with some people firmly convinced they are guilty.

The Mayor told of one case where a black man, poor, borderline mentally handicapped, was convicted of a murder with virtually no evidence. A man had been killed in the town and no one was arrested for seven years. After seven years the ex-girlfriend of a man “Beau” walked into the police station and told the police Beau had killed the man.

Beau was arrested, tried, convicted and sentenced to death. There was no gun, no forensic evidence, nothing. But Beau was, as far too many black men are, viewed as disposable in the society he was living in. In cases like this the jury frequently seems to feel that if the black man is not guilty of this he is guilty of something and might as well be jailed.Beau was lucky, he had a high powered lawyer take an interest in his case and, after 11 years on death row, he was exonerated and freed. You have to wonder how many black men have not been as lucky and have had their time on death row run out before they can get a new trial or hearing.

A white male in the audience raised his hand to ask a question. When he was called on he said that he had recently been incarcerated briefly. He said in his experience the black men in jail with him thought being in jail was better than being out on the streets and homeless. He said that a lot of the men were drug addicts and could still get their drugs in jail along with room and board.

The audience kind of gave a collective sigh as he finished speaking. This young man was not speaking from any animus against black men, he was just speaking from a societal background of privilege which led him to presume that black men are born criminals just waiting to be apprehended.

After about an hour of the panel sharing their mournful statistics and anecdotes with us, the conversation switched to education. The link between dropping out of high school and ending up in jail is well documented. We know that black males are among the top groups likely to drop out of high school. My question is, why don’t we do something about that, or at least wonder why that is?

In my experience Many white female teachers are fine with black males until those males begin to look like men. Then suspensions go up, some white female teachers begin to express fear when the black male is insolent or disobedient, rather than annoyance which they tend to express when white males are similarly disobedience or insolent. As a result the white male may end up with detention while the black male ends up suspended, often for the same or equal offense.

Another lovely trait I observed, both as a classroom teacher for 18 years and an educational researcher for 5, was that even if the white female teacher ( more than 90% of our K-12 teaching staff) was not afraid of the black male, she did not expect a lot from him. If he was not violent or aggressive she tended to not push her luck, as long as he was quiet and obedient he would pass, not with a good grade, true, but he would pass.

I even had white teachers tell me that they did not push their black male students to achieve academically because they did not want to embarrass them, or cause them ot have a harder time in school when their lives were already so hard.  How nice.

Until Americans are ready to give up the Myth of the Meritocracy, confront racism and other forms of bias we will continue to see black men jailed, sentenced to death and executed because we simply do not care enough as a society to stop it.

Educational researchers have filled tomes with examples of disparate treatment, from Jonathan Kozol’s wonderful “Savage Inequalities” to Lisa Delpit’s “Other people’s children.” I could fill a page with researchers who document and diagnose the way that black children are treated differently and short-changed in American schools, particularly black males.

So, we know black males tend to get a raw deal from the justice system. We also know that in many cases the school systems are not exactly places of welcome and encouragement for them and we know what happens when they cannot finish school and get jobs that can support themselves and/or their families. Again, why aren’t we doing anything about it?

Post Script: In 2009 the NC legislature finally passed the Racial Justice Act. It permits defense attorneys to use proof of racism to argue against the death penalty. This year the Republican party in NC has targeted the Act as something they want to repeal. As part of their efforts they have been distributed a flier with the phrase ” Meet your new neighbor” on the front and mug shots of two death row inmates, one white, one black on the inside. The text in brochure says that the Act, supported by a named Democratic state congressman, will let murders out of jail early. In actuality the law only allows the convicted murder to be sentenced to life in prison rather than death. The people who made the brochure know they were not being truthful, but they are betting on John Q public’s notorious lack of critical thinking skills and personal research or inquiry to make that a moot point. Is it any wonder that people believe that black men are dangerous and should be kept out of society?

The more things change…….

 
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Posted by on October 30, 2010 in Education, Justice System, Social Justice

 

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Education is Failing some students

I read some statistics recently that were quite discouraging about high school dropout rates. According to the National Center for Educational Statistics, 4.8% of white students, 9.9% of black students, 18.3% of Hispanic students and 14.6% of American Indian students dropped out of high school in 2008. Of course, these statistics are inexact as many educators would point out. They do not include students who may have dropped out of one school and entered another, or other variables. Still it is alarming to see the numbers.

Remember, considering the overwhelming majority of students are white, the 4.8% represents by far the largest number of dropouts. When doing demographics it is easy to fall into the pattern of using only percentages, they are easier to read, and some would claim, more instructive of what is happening in specific populations. I can see both arguments, but the fact of the matter is they often give a skewed picture of American society.

In virtually any category whites are going to make up most of the population discussed telling us percentages may tell us how prevalent something is in a specific racial population, but it does not give a true picture. For example, using the statistics above the number white dropouts would be 905,137 while the number of black dropouts would be 321, 561.

Of course, one dropout is too many, no matter what race they happen to be. Intervention, however, needs to be based, at least partially on race. To begin with, we need to look at teacher ranks racial make-up. Even in our urban centers white teachers account for between 76% and 91% of teachers in public schools. Having done quite a bit of research—both field and documentary, on education in general and teachers in particular, I would be the last person to suggest that white teachers are our problem. Some of the best teachers I observed working with black children were white.

No, my claim is not that race specific, the dropout problem probably has many variables like home situation, geographic relocation, etc., but having taught for 18 years I am willing to bet that a large number of students, particularly males and particularly minorities, drop out because school seems irrelevant to them.  This is not because they are not intellectually capable, far from it, some of the most disengaged students I ever encountered were brilliant. That was the problem; the pedestrian, imaginative, routine, rote learning based pedagogy of many of the people who were teaching them caused them to disengage from the process. If the teacher happens to also be disconnected culturally and culturally unaware it only makes the problem that much worse.

When I was still teaching I had a high school student who was brilliant. I will call him Johnny A. Johnny did not do homework, but aced all his tests. He consistently got C’s despite being a merit semi-finalist, because the teachers marked him down because of his failing to do homework. He also needed to lie down sometimes during the day when his brain over heated. I talked to the nurse and made arrangements with her to let him lie down, at least sometimes during my class. Some of his other teachers complained and questioned why he would get to lie down. My response to them was that if it produced Merit semi-finalists we needed to let them lie down whenever they liked and I would be happy to go find cots in the community.

We HAVE to find more teachers who take their responsibility to help their students succeed more seriously. Otherwise our dropout stats will continue to rise and we will continue to waste potential.

 

The Invisible Woman: With apologies to Ralph Ellison

According to American society I do not exist. I am black, but have never been in jail. Have never said anything remotely like ” Yo, brutha, cut me some slack”, never had a food stamp or been on welfare, have never taken drugs ( that is not to imply I am saintly, Xenia,Ohio where I grew up missed the drug culture until I was too old to justify experimentation–it always took trends longer to get to Xenia,we kind of missed the sexual revolution too, darn it), have been married for decades, my husband is the father of all of my children ( sorry Maury) , I cannot stand rap music, have never lived in a urban environment, do not contort my neck when I am trying to make a point and have never, never watched a Tyler Perry movie, except one time I was dragooned and dragged ( or is it drug?) anyway forced into the theater by some friends.We then had a, shall we call it spirited, discussion of the movie in the restaurant we went to afterward for dinner.

I do not wear extensions ( I thought those were cords for when your laptop plug-in could not reach for the longest time and wondered why people were talking about them in relation to hair!), I am not hip, I do not particularly love Louis Vuitton, or any other designer for that matter and I do not frequently throw up my hands and shout Praise  Jesus! or tell folks to be blessed ( since I am not a saint I am pretty sure I cannot bless people, can I? ), I believe in the separation of church and state. I am a feminist, I believe in a abortion rights and I believe in gay rights and think anyone who loves someone else enough to commit to them should have the same chance to have half their marriages fail as us heterosexuals.

In other words I fail to be black in any way that American society recognizes. Although you might not think this matters, it does. I have had black people tell me I am ” out of touch with black culture” because I did not think it was funny in a Tyler Perry movie–my ONLY Tyler Perry movie, when Medea, supposedly an older black woman with a foul-mouth and irrational reactions, threaten to “shank” a small black child, an orphan no less,  who says something she does not like. The theater audience, which was about 80% black seemed to think that was hilarious. Considering the difficult lives many black children, especially poor black children, have I found it hard to find humor in that exchange. Perry’s Medea either gave rise to or exacerbated an existing stereotype of the “angry black woman.”  This characterization, which includes being irrational and at least threatening violence, means that when a black woman like myself has a perfectly appropriate objection to oppression or complaint about racism, sexism or any other social injustice we can be dismissed as ” difficult.”

I have had white people tell me after presentations at national conferences that ” I would not think of you as black.”  They were not talking skin color, I am not that light. They were talking demeanor and language usage.I did not fit their stereotypes in those areas so they simply removed me from the race, making me honorary white, at least for the moment.

Both groups, the blacks who do not think I am black enough, and the whites who do not think I am black at all, have misconceptions about the diversity of the black community. We are not a monolithic group of urban dwelling, hip hopping, bling wearing, foul mouthed, dysfunctional people. Oh, I know that is virtually all you see on television but people like me exist in good numbers.

I grew up in a place with two historically black universities within 4 miles of my home town. My concept of black people, as a result was one highly educated, erudite and articulate people. I doubt Greene County Ohio is the only place on the planet where the blacks speak standard English and finish college in large numbers. ( I was 30 before I heard that knowing grammatical rules meant you were emulating whites. A lot of my white classmates had some bad habits, like asking ” where is that at?”  or ” I seen it” something I never heard before integration).

So, what is my point? Simply this. I am one of the blackest people anyone ever had the pleasure of knowing. I love being black and resent being considered less than because I do not fit a stereotypical view of blacks.

I am not a myth. I know a lot of other black folks just like me. Look for us, we are not hard to find if you remove your blinders and quit expecting to see something from a movie or television show. To steal a line from Avatar “see me.”

 
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Posted by on October 23, 2010 in Race, The Gospel According to Saint Cookie

 

Friends, pseudo friends, pretend friends and enemies!

You know the old saying, keep your friends close and your enemies closer! As I have gotten older, I am, after all, what the French would call a woman of a certain age, I have pondered the friends I have had, those that I still have, those that I used to have and those I thought I had but never had.

I am not an easy person to have as a friend. I have strong opinions about virtually everything and am firmly convinced that it is my duty to tell everyone what I think. I also insist that they think. Frequently I can tell when I throw what I think is a live one out there in the conversation, something like ,oh, maybe something like” Can you believe that Mrs. Uncle Clarence Thomas phoned Anita Hill and insulted her all over again!”, that they do not want to talk about politics, or race or sexism or anything serious. They want to talk about fashion and family and music and food. Booooorring!

I have plenty of time to talk about those things with lots of people. That is small talk. There is nothing controversial or confidential about whether or not St John knits are on sale at Nordstrom’s. Who cares? I want to talk about intrigue at work, injustice in the world ( and at work!) , books, articles, conferences, research, social justice, important stuff.  Some of my friends have trouble understanding why I am seemingly never not at work. I like work, I like thinking, I like writing ( duh!) I like exploring ideas and perspectives and perceptions and interpretations. I like dissecting why people do what they do.

For example, why do some people think it is possible to keep secrets on a college campus? Virtually anything worth knowing that is said at 8AM anywhere on campus is known to anyone interested by 4PM,three if they are truly good at networking. I have tentacles all over campus, if it happens in the School of Social work across campus I know within the hour. Might take longer if it happens in the Medical School, but no longer than a day or so.

But I digress, back to the friends. My husband and I had dinner with some friends we have had since we were a young married couple ( we have been married 43 years, so you know that was a minute ago). I used to teach with both of them in Xenia Ohio where they still live. They are also sheep farmers and were in Raleigh to show sheep at the county fair. We had dinner with them and their grown daughter Tuesday evening. Although I had not seen them since 1997 we picked right up and had a great dinner and conversation for more than two hours.

I have friends I do not see for years, but we are still dear friends and when we do see each other it is just like we never parted company. Old friends are the best, although good new friends are special as well. I have made some good female friends since I came to Carolina, some are black, some are white, but the two groups do not mix. When I am with my white female friends I am usually the only black, when I am with my black female friends there are no white women. It was like that in Ohio too. I will save delving into that much for another blog.

I have also made some pseudo friends here in Carolina. As I mentioned earlier I am not necessarily an easy friend to have. I consider myself an Alpha female and tend to bark quite a bit if someone else tries to exert control. I am not far from the woman described by the pundit as one who “wants to be the bride at every wedding and the corpse at every funeral.” I cannot help it, this is how I am wired. But, I do acknowledge it and I do apologize frequently…well.. occasionally.

If I am your friend I am also loyal, honest, thoughtful and have your back no matter what, even if I think you are wrong I will not say so in front of other people. You know what I mean, friends help you move, real friends help you move bodies. I would load up the u-haul with your prey without blinking if you were my true friend.

On the other hand if you are one of those fake friends with a facade of care, giving me air smooches and calling me sweetie, but then engaging in character assassination behind my back because you are afraid to say it to my face, I pretty much write you off as a waste of protoplasm.(People do not tend to tell me unpleasant things. You know what Machiavelli said, ” It is better to be feared than liked.” You have to admire that man.)

Anyway, be good to your friends and insist that they be good to you or cut them loose, erase their digits from your cell , scratch them off your Christmas card list ( if you are one of the oldies like me who still sends Christmas cards), and relegate them to the large number of people who simply do not matter. If that sounds harsh, or you are just a kinder, gentler person than I am , you can always just drop them without comment and when someone refers to them in your presence, use that tried and true southern standard phrase that declares someone useless, but in a kindly way, ” Bless her heart!”

 
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Posted by on October 21, 2010 in The Gospel According to Saint Cookie

 

The Master’s tools will never dismantle the Master’s house.

The quote that serves as a title for this entry is by the great Audre Lorde, a black woman scholar who, no pun intended, knew how to call a spade a spade!

Colleges and universities all over America claim to want diversity. Unfortunately, the majority of them, in my experience, have no idea what diversity is, why they want it or how to achieve it.  In some cases it might appear they have achieved at least one or two forms of diversity. They may have a large number of students of color, an LGBTQ and Women’s Center, but are any of these entities or populations empowered to make decisions, set policies or effect change? The power in higher education remains the purview of the white male. Even those who manage to enter the hallowed  and ivy covered halls of academe who are not white and/or male generally report to a white male. That means if the white male does not like something it is not going to be around long. This rule applies to people, processes, policies, curricula, philosophies and organizational structure. Heck, for all I know it applies to paint color and the kind of mustard provided for the hot dogs at the football games.

As a result when someone is hired who is not a white male they have to quickly understand  the need to stay on the good side of the white male if they want to survive. The white women and people of color who thrive on our college campuses-faculty, staff and students,  at predominantly white institutions have learned this skill and practiced it until it is second nature. I doubt they even know they are the Master‘s Tools.

Now, think with me a moment. Exactly how likely is it that the group in power, white males in this case, would want to make sweeping changes, some of which might chip away at or compromise that power? I know if I was in the power elite I would be working like the dickens to make sure things stayed as close to the same as they possibly could. Who wants to ruin a perfectly good system???

The presumption is that if you hire a person of color, or in some cases a white woman, he or she will be a social justice advocate. Oh, if only that were true. Putting self  before cause or the greater good is increasingly becoming the American way and this is no where more true than in academe. Can you blame them? Surely you cannot blame the employees. I am going to offer you a nice office, a handsome salary and the admiration of your peers and colleagues. You are going to be our shining example of how one of “those” people can succeed!  All you have to do in return is nothing, and continue to do nothing. You will be even more handsomely rewarded if, while doing nothing, you are able to pretend to be doing something!

The primary method of pretending to do something while actually doing nothing is to fail to have any kind of transparency about what it is you are trying to do and refusing to have any objective metrics to judge whether you are actually doing anything. if you are questioned or criticized for doing nothing you can always fall back on the tried and true and greet any criticism of your social justice efforts with cries of racism, or sexism, or homophobia.

So we see money being spent on programs for white women and minorities. Recruitment programs, orientation programs, support programs, special events. Does anyone ever evaluate the overall impact of these programs on the outcomes for minorities and white women? How often are they objectively evaluated?

I am not suggesting we do away with targeted anything. I am suggesting, however, that if universities want to be truly diverse–which, horror of horrors includes having white women and people of color in decision making roles too–we need objective measures to see  what is working and what is not to allow our diverse populations the best possible chance to succeed.

Running programs for students, faculty or staff that someone dreams up and institutionalizes and never questions again is a sure way to pretend to be doing something. Unfortunately, it also allows the institution to shift the blame for failures onto the white women and minorities. “We gave them these programs and still they do not succeed, it is not us, it is them. We tried our best, look at all the money we spent on special programs and still they do not thrive!” And, they have the Master’s Tools standing behind them nodding in agreement the entire time.

I am afraid the Master’s house is safe for a good long time!

 
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Posted by on October 20, 2010 in Education, Race, Social Justice

 

Education Reform–we cannot wait on Superman or Parents!

Earlier this fall I was invited by the owner of an HR company to present at a conference being given in Greensboro, NC. Never one to turn down an opportunity to talk in front of people, and eager to see if my presentation would be well received by a group that was not affiliated with a college, I jumped at the chance.  I found out very quickly that dealing with business folk is different from dealing with academic types. Academic types had never picked me up at my hotel, driven me around, bought me dinner and introduced me, at dinner, to national figures. I was beginning to love this business style existence! The night before the conference there was a fancy reception at the International  Civil Rights Museum and Center. Johnny Taylor, Jr., the CEO of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund and I had begun a conversation at dinner about education and K-12 education reform, particularly as it impacts black folks. ( Johnny is black). At the museum he was holding forth to a mixed race group of people about some of his ideas on reform. I had no problem with most of what he was saying until he began to pontificate on how important it was to make black parents participate in the education of their children. Whaaatt?? First, the idea that black parents, any more or less than any other parents are falling down on the job as far as what goes on in our public schools is a facetious and unproven assertion. We have incidents reported, of course, of black parents who do not do what most of us would consider due diligence. They send the kids to school without proper attire, or proper nutrition or proper “respect for education” whatever that is. But, my contention, and it is bound to be unpopular, is that if the kid shows up sentient the rest of what happens that day is up to the adult educators.

I was not integrated, at least not in school,  until the 9th grade. Following Brown v Board of Education of Topeka decision in 1954,  Xenia City Schools all white board of education drug their heels as long as they could  to integrate the schools, closing down all of the black schools and sending the black children to the formerly all white schools.  Full integration in Xenia did not occur until well into the 60’s. They also demoted virtually all of the black teachers, sending the secondary teachers to the elementary schools to teach. After the 8th grade I never had another black teacher. Yet, even with that, integration and all white teachers I was not permitted not to learn. My white teachers demanded excellence from me in the same voice that my black teachers had and would not take any resistance on my part. I do not remember any of them calling my parents, demanding things of my parents or for that matter consulting my parents on any matter. If I did not achieve what they wanted me to I was required to stay after school. When Mrs. Boli, my French teacher, decided I had promise she not only required that I stay after school to learn more, she placed me on a competitive scholarship team and insisted I come to her house some evenings to learn more so I ( and my other teammates, Sally and Sharon–both white) could be competitive.

Imagine a teacher today insisting students learn, even if it meant she had to stay after school or have them over to her house to make sure they did. (Mrs. Boli lived next door to the owners of one of the only restaurants in town that did not allow blacks to eat there. When I made a joke that the female owner had looked at me entering Mrs. B’s house and probably thought I was coming to clean up, she marched me over to the house and informed the woman that I was her best French student and I was coming to her house to practice for an important competition). I think what I described above gives us a great picture of what is wrong with public education and it cannot be placed at the feet of the parents. To begin with many of our parents are not educated themselves and did not have particularly pleasant or rewarding experiences in schools that have not been welcoming and/or nurturing of black students for the most part for some time.

Educators go to school for years to study pedagogy. They had to take classes in discipline ( I used to teach teacher prep classes, I know they have to take such classes, cause I taught them! ) If they cannot teach the students regardless of the situation their parents send them in they have some choices. First, find out what failure of the parent is causing the child to be unteachable and ameliorate it. Call Children’s Services, call the local police, call the local charities, call the local churches, call some damn body, and quit sitting there wringing your hands. I had a slush fund when I taught to help out poor kids in my  district  (and I taught in what was basically a suburban district). I got my slush fund money by soliciting items from local merchants which we then raffled off at the home football and basketball games. Students could petition for money for any reason.  I organized a work day to paint my classroom when the school system said it could not be done due to lack of funds. After other teachers at my school Warner Jr. Hi.  heard what I was doing they pitched in and agreed to come on a Saturday along with parents and students, to paint halls, classrooms,etc. local merchants donated paint and the local KFC agreed to feed all the volunteers for free.When I was doing educational research I had teachers tell me that they could not teach the kids because they came to school hungry, their parents having failed to feed them. I was flabbergasted. I could not imagine one of my teachers, white or black, finding out I had not had food that day, and not doing anything about it.

Second choice, find a new career. If you are taking money to teach children you say cannot be taught you are perpetuating a fraud on society. Teaching is not a job, it is an avocation. If you lack the passion for it, get out!

When I was doing educational research I noticed a trend. The teachers who were good teachers always referred to their students as ” my kids.” They did not say ” the students” or even worse “those kids. ” Until we are ready to stand up and claim every child as our own and treat him or her as such public schools will continue to fail far too many of our children. Educators, and I certainly include administrators in this group, who are looking to lay blame on anyone else need to look in the mirror.

So, I am going to end by telling you what I told Johnny over a glass of wine at the reception. Public schools have no control over parents. Unless and until we begin to fine or jail parents for not preparing their children the way we would like for them to come to school we cannot put the future of public education in the hands of the parents. Nor should we.  Research tells us that children from poor families hear 4 million fewer words than children from middle class and upper class families before they come to kindergarten. Without  some intervention that child is starting at a deficit. What would you  have the poorly educated parent do about this? The child whose parent is lacking, whether that lack is financial, emotional, or physical needs more from the public schools not less. If we place the burden of reforming schools on parents we will end up the way we began. Those with power and privilege will have a good education for their children, those without will not. in other words the luck of the draw at birth determines your future.

I am not willing to settle for that.

 
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Posted by on October 19, 2010 in Education, Race, Social Justice

 

Race Potpourri

When I was in the classroom I always encouraged my college students, and sometimes my high school students, to do their own research, not to take my word, or anyone’s word as gospel. Now I am going to invite my blog readers to do the same thing. This is football season, when you are watching the games–especially the college ones, but the professional ones as well, listen to the commentary and see if you can find a difference between the way players of color and white players are described. This is easy research, all you need is a scrap of paper with two columns, “white” and “of color.”  Write down the adjectives used to describe them by the commentators , who are overwhelmingly white. (A topic for another blog–why is it that sports writers and commentators, unlike players are overwhelmingly white?), in the appropriate column and report it back to this blog. If it is what has been documented before ( if you want an article I can send you one) you will find that white players are described as leaders, intelligent, bright, while players of color are described as talented and fast and big. In other words the white players have positive characteristics they have developed with effort, while the players of color just happen to have been born superior physical specimens. Rather takes me back to the 70’s when I was teaching high school and one of my white male students named Jim assured me quite earnestly that the reason many black males were so skilled at athletics was that slaves were bred to have an extra muscle in their legs. I asked him what would happen if a white woman and a black man had a baby? Would the child limp since he only had a special slave muscle in one leg? I was not a reverent teacher, and never tried to treat my students like they were dumb or unable to understand sarcasm.

Okay, assignment two ( it is hard to stop being a teacher I find) Watch the television news ( I know this can be painful) and those ubiquitous true crime shows and see how many times a blond woman is described as beautiful, even when she is nothing of the sort. It is fascinating. Of course, beauty is in the eye of the beholder, and since my youngest two grandchildren have blue eyes I have come to appreciate blue eyes more, but come on people, some folks would see an orangutan with blond hair and declare her beautiful. Let me know what you find out here too please.

Okay, class dismissed! 🙂

 
4 Comments

Posted by on October 19, 2010 in Athletes, Education, Race